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An elementary study on the Islamic perspectives
on psychology ,mental health, counseling and psychotherapy

S. A.Hosseini , M.D. Professor of Psychiatry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Part
Title
One A study on the role of the Divine school of psychology as a criterion and coordinative school
Two A study on the genesis of the anxiety state
Three Primary Prevention on Psychiatric Disorders According to the Divine school of psychology
Four An Elementary Study on the Principles of Individual and Group Psychotherapy and Mental Health in Islam
Five The Criteria Of Counseling and Psychotherapy According to the Islamic Perspectives

 


 

Chapter 1:
A study on the role of the Divine School of Psychology as a criterion and coordinative school


• Abstract
There is no doubt that human beings have only one psychic apparatus. Each school of psychology has studied this psychic apparatus through its own special approach. At present we have numerous schools of psychology having in some respects contradictory points of views. Consequently, we need a criterion school of psychology in order to evaluate and coordinate these schools and to correct their deviations.
We suggest to use the Divine school of psychology as a criterion and coordinative school. As the basic messages of the Divine School of Psychology have been elicited from the Qur'an, one can say it has been organized by the Creator of men. We are sure that we can find out the same messages by reviewing other Divine books, such as Barnabas Gospel and other Gospels. So it can and should be considered as the criterion school. One can discover the essence of the Divine School of Psychology in its intact form in Islam. Islam introduces psychology as the baseline of all sciences and as the essential key to gain psychic development. Practical criteria of mental health and mental illnesses have been clearly defined in this school. In addition, the Islamic School of Psychology has given clear definitions for the nature of the life factor and its dimensions and essential components of psyche.

Introduction
At present we are teaching many schools of psychology in our universities and even through our mass media. Our students are familiar with Freudian, Jungian, Adlerian, Pavlovian and other schools of thoughts. However, at no time do we mention the Divine School of Psychology even for the purposes of comparison with the above schools of psychology. Recently, during the last few decades, this school of psychology has brought a new feeling and awakening in the world. In fact, it was the first school of its kind to have appeared in the world. Since it has not been considered by this name, i.e. the Divine School of Psychology, it has been neglected; and some false and invalid schools have been substituted in its place. Consequently, the Divine School of Psychology has been omitted from scientific dictionaries.
Now, we are confronted with complications due to the omission and neglect of the Divine School of Psychology. This is indicated through the spread and increase of psychiatric reactive disturbances, personality problems, family structure disturbances, social problems, alcoholism, sexual deviation, aggression, etc. Thus, it would be beneficial to pay more attention to this forgotten school of psychology and try to fulfill its points of views in our individual and social life.

Why do we need a criterion school of psychology?
There is no doubt that human beings have only one psychic apparatus. Each school of psychology has studied this psychic apparatus through its own special approach. We already have numerous psychology schools having some inherently contradictory points of views. Consequently, we need a criterion school of psychology in order to evaluate and coordinate these schools and to correct their mistakes and weaknesses.
God brought the book of existence and creation into being. From this, we can presume that in all branches of science we are studying the signs of Allah; and psychology is not an exception. For many centuries billions of human beings have believed in God and His instructions. They have thoroughly carried out their lifestyles with His education, and the trend is continuing at present.
Of course all human beings are supposed to obey the Divine laws if they wish to gain psychic development. Now we can put forth a big question: viz., what is the meaning of the relationship between human beings and the Divine laws from a psychological point of view? And how should this continuous relationship be interpreted? Usually different schools of psychology have their own special approach to this relationship. It seems that the Divine religions have their unique school of psychology, and this has enabled them to convince humans with their thoughts and by these to manage their life according to the Divine methods.
We suggest to use the Divine school of psychology as a criterion and coordinative school. As the basic messages of the Divine School of Psychology have been elicited from the Qur'an , one can say it has been organized by the Creator of men. We are sure that we can find out the same messages by reviewing other Divine books , such as Barnabas Gospel and other Gospels.We can discover the fundamentals of this school in its intact form in Islam . So , we have used the concept of Islamic School of Psychology as a synonym of the Divine School of Psychology. The fundamentals of the Islamic School of Psychology are mentioned as follows:

- The life factor as a non-chemical agent
Each school of psychology views the psyche and its dimensions in a certain way. There is a close relationship between each approach’s perspective on the psyche, its points of view about the world, and the programs which it suggests for human life.
Materialist biologists think that the universe is organized of matter and radiation energy.

- The divine school of psychology as a criterion
The Divine School of Psychology introduces the concept of “the life factor” as a causal agent. In this approach the life factor is seen as the cause of vital and psychological processes in all bio-organisms. It is a non-chemical agent and is a rich and extensive source for further scientific research.
According to the cause and effect principle, we are supposed to identify the main source of vital processes. This can be done by the means of profound studies which may enable us to come to the natural conclusion that the factor of life cannot have a chemical nature.
Martyr Mottahary, contemporary Iranian philosopher supports the Vitalism approach and believes that the best system to study life factor is the biology. By reviewing different books of biology we came to the natural conclusion that molecules can't cause vital processes either by themselves or any conceivable synthesis. I've put this approach in my Persian book titled: "An Elementary Study of the Principles of Islamic School of Psychology" - 1985.

I have summarized the main characteristics of life factors as the following:
1. Chemical agents are unable to perform and coordinate vital processes. Therefore, we have to consider the life factor as a non-chemical agent.
2. The life factor has a very close relationship with the chemical agents in bio-organisms.
3. The life factor is alive, and it is the source of energy and motivation, without which we cannot even imagine motility and energy in bio-organisms.
4. All vital and psychological processes in bio-organisms are due to the life factor.
5. The integrity of vital processes in each bio-organism is due to the life factor.
6. The way in which the life factor works is quite scientific; and it has been confirmed that it is conscious of its own activities and situations.
7. The life factor is purposeful, and it causes goal-directed activities in all processes of bio-organisms and in their whole body as well.
8. The lawfulness of every bio-organism in its vital processes is due to the life factor.
9. The life factor is dependent on God, and it is not an independent entity.
10. The life factor is responsible for causing common aspects in all bio-organisms.

The situation of psychology in Islam
The position of psychology in Islam is a unique one. The Prophet (PBUH) says:
One who knows himself thus knows God. F (Footnote) 1
He says again:
To study science is necessary for every Muslim, both for men as well as for women. F2
Further, according to the Prophet:
This science ought to be psychology.F2
Imam Ali says:
One who knows himself has gained the final goal of all knowledge and sciences.F3 you should not be ignorant of yourself because one who is ignorant of himself is ignorant of everything.F4
In Chapter 11 (Hood) , verse 53 of the Qur’an , we see the following sentence: We will soon show them our signs in the universe and in their own souls, until it becomes clear to them that He is the truth.F5
Imam Ali, interpreting this verse, says:
Knowledge of oneself is the more useful one of two kinds of knowledge.F6
It means that science that deals with the psyche is more useful than those sciences which deal with the universe.
Allama Tabatabai, one of the great interpreters of the Qur’an, concludes this saying by stating that the reason why psychology is more useful is because it helps in modifying the self and in understanding its dependency on God. This approach will enable man to discover that all aspects of himself are quite dependent on God and that he is not an independent creature. Allama further adds that man needs to discover the straight path for his development; and this, according to him, can be achieved by obeying the Divine laws.

Main psychic components
According to this school, there are two different and opposite psychic components in operation, namely the conscienceF7 and the passion F8 which are inherent and not acquired. The first one has an evolutionary and developmental nature, whereas the second can be considered as an instinctual motive. Reasoning ability, as realized in man’s free will, helps him to activate his conscience and control the passion, accordingly or vice versa.(7) Imam Ali confirms that the psychic apparatus of human beings is a combination of the above two processes. He believes that if man can succeed in giving authority to the natural wisdom (natural wisdom = conscience) F9, then he is superior to the angels; but if his passion takes authority over the self, then he is lower than animals F10
Imam Khomeini believes that the conscience is inherent and not acquired, and he states that it has the two following components:
1. Main conscience F11 has an evolutionary and developmental nature. This urges the whole personality to gain complete development, evolution, power and the drive to gain knowledge. In fact, according to Imam Khomeini, the conscience is fond of absolute development.
2. Subordinate conscience F12 which abhors any conceivable defect. Imam Khomeini concludes that absolute perfection can be seen only in God, and since man admires and pursues perfection, he is thereby fond of God, his heart and soul consequently desire to reach Him. This author, by using the 30th verse of the 30th chapter of the Qur’an, concludes that all Divine instructions are acceptable by the conscience. He adds that these instructions, which fortify the conscience and facilitate psychic development, can be introduced as curative medicaments for ill psyches.
Imam Ali confirms that the passion is opposite to the conscience F13.
According to the Prophet (PBUH) there is a continuous conflict between the passion and the conscience which he explains as a real war (14). The Prophet (PBUH) emphasizes that the war between these two opposite components is even more severe than a war between two groups of enemies (2). The personality of man and his volition depends on the authority of one of these two factors. Thus, according to the Islamic School of Psychology, all Divine laws are instruments to control the passion and to fortify the conscience. Allama Tabatabai believes that in one way or another all the Divine instructions are related to humans psyche.

The brain as the inhibitory system
Imam Jafar Ibn Mohammad (PBUH) introduces the brain as the center of wisdom (15) i.e. as an inhibitory system and center of intellectual activities.
According to Ibn Abbas :
God commanded David to ask Solomon fourteen questions and grant him the science of prophecy if he answered correctly. David said, “My little boy! Tell me where the center of wisdom is in yourself?” Solomon replied, “The brain” (16).

Criteria for mental health and mental illness
The Islamic School of Psychology has practical criteria for mental health and mental illness. We can find many of these criteria in the Qur’an and other Islamic teachings. I have divided these criteria into two main groups:
The first group consists of low-grade criteria of mental health which can be used in our every day practice of psychiatry .The second group distinguishes the mature personality. This school uses the criterion of “development” for both definitions of mental health. The meaning of development is very extended. The necessary amount of development for every day practice of life is defined as the minimal criterion of mental health(17). This criterion has been mentioned in the Qur’an (verses 5-6 of the 4th chapter), as follows:
And do not give away your property which Allah has made for you as (means of) support to the weak of understanding, and maintain them out of (the profits of) it, and clothe them and speak to them words of honest advice. And test the orphans until they attain puberty; then if you find in them maturity of intellect, make over to them their propertyF18.
In the above verse “maturity” (development in its lower stage) is a criterion for independence.
Severe and mild mental retardation have been mentioned in the Qur’an, and this has been clearly defined by the leaders of Islam. In verse 282 of the second chapter of the Qur’an we can see the following sentence:
But if he who oweth the debt is of low understanding, or weak, or unable himself to dictate, then let the guardian of his interests dictate (in terms of equity)F19.
Imam Jafar Ibn Mohammad interprets these items as follows F20:
A person of low understanding is one who pays for a Drachma (a unit of money) many folds.
It means that the most striking symptom of a low understanding person is his inability to calculate. We can use this item for the assessment of severe mental retardation. Further:
A weak and feeble minded person is one who pays two folds for somethingF21.
By comparison of these two items one finds that the calculation disturbance in a weak person is less than that seen in a person of low understanding. We can use this item as an index for the understanding of mild mental retardation.
Reality disturbance testing has been defined in the Islamic School of Psychology as “the covering of intellectual functioning”F22. There are many teachings in this school which indicate that this state can be reversed. Instructions from the Prophet (PBUH) and other leaders of this school introduce this state as a diseaseF23.
Disturbance in the social functioning is the most striking symptom which the Islamic laws define for this stateF24.

The definition of an ideal and mature person
The word “development”, in the sense of continuous evolution, has been defined as a criterion for the mature person. According to this school, in order to gain real development man is supposed to believe in Allah and to always try to do his best by using the Divine instructions. We can find this approach in the 186th verse of the second chapter of the Qur’an:
And when my servant questions thee concerning me, I am near to answer the call of the caller when he calls to me. So let them respond to me, and let them believe in me haply so they will developF25.
Thus, multidimensional development, perfection, and evolution are the reasons and results of believing in God and obeying Him.
The Prophet (PBUH) says:
One whose two days are equal is a cheated oneF26.
By this approach psychic development should be continuously followed up, and to this there is no conceivable end.

A practical method of the Divine school of psychology as a criterion school
From the Islamic point of view, existence and the universe were created by God. All scientific workers are in pursuit of facts about the above system. It follows from this that all scientific findings should be evaluated according to the Divine criteria. Therefore, the data presented by the different schools of psychology will have one of the three main possibilities as given below:
1. A given school of psychology has discovered certain data which has been confirmed by adopting a rational method. According to the Islamic School of Psychology:
“Anything which has been asserted by reasoning will be asserted by religion, too.” F27
Consequently the Divine School of Psychology will agree with such findings; and, therefore will consider the data as some of its components. For example, to highlight the above we can mention the data which are presented in the fields of psychophysiology and psychological tests (ref. to circles A,B, Diag.1).
2. The Divine School of Psychology will reject data which are not valid and are contrary to its instructions.F28
In brief we can conclude that the Divine School of Psychology will reject only that data which are false or invalid. Consequently, in a defined and given school of psychology we can accept the valid data and conversely reject the non-valid ones. According to the diagram1 we may have different schools of psychology with varying amounts of acceptability (ref. to circles C, D, E, Diag. 1). It appears that we seldom have a school of psychology with completely wrong data (Circle F).
3. The Divine School of Psychology will study theoretical data whose validity is in question. These data will be re-tested, and the conclusions will be evaluated against items 1 and 2.

Diagram 1:

The relationship between the Divine School of Psychology and other schools

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According to the late Jafari, our contemporary Islamic philosopher, the scientific system of Islam is an open one which accepts any reasonable data. We can discover the basis of the above criteria in the 17th verse of the 13th chapter of the Qur’an which says F29:
He sends down water from the cloud, then water-
courses flow according to their measure, and the torrent bears along the swelling foam and from what they melt in the fire for the sake of making ornaments of apparatus arises a scum like it; thus does Allah compare truth and falsehood; then as for the scum, it passes away as a worthless thing, and as for that which profits the people, it tarries in the earth; thus does Allah set forth the parables.
Allama Tabatabai, when interpreting this verse, says that the difference between false ideas and right ones is related to the amount of their concordance to reality. From this we can see that the criteria as employed in the Islamic School of Psychology have both logical and religious bases.

Practical management of the principles of development
The Islamic School of Psychology usually educates and trains the population with its own moral instructions. Therefore, a well-trained individual or society will never have legal engagement.
The principles which this school suggest for the development of human beings are not merely suggestions as they are supported by strong protective sanctions. This fact is valid in all aspects of individual and social duties. A believer in God considers His supervision on humanity, expects His rewards, and fears His punishment. These factors usually urge him to follow the straight path and abide the Islamic laws. However, if he neglects these prescriptions and does not obey these rules, he will be caught by defined acts for his behavior.
Of course Eternal rewards and punishments are the most striking incentives to do his best and to avoid indulging in sins. These facilities make this School of Psychology an unique one, especially when one remembers that other schools of psychology lack such possibilities. These characteristics make this school of thought the real, ideal, multidimensional approach to psychology which can be regarded as a coordinating, corrective and criterion school of psychology. From this, it appears that all workers of psychology, psychiatry, sociology and mental health in general, and the believers in God in particular, need to study this school of thought and rationally consider its instructions in every day practices.

References

  1. Al-Harrani: Tohaf al-oghool. Al-Eslamiia Pub. 1400 Hij., p. 371

  2. Ameli S: Alvasel Al-Shia, vol. 11. Al-Eslamiia Pub. 1398 Hij., pp.124,164

  3. Amodi: Ghorar Al-Hekam, vols. 1-2. Teheran Univ. Pub. 1360 Hij

  4. Feiz M.M: Al--Tafsir Al-Safi, vol. 2. Mahmoodi Pub. 1334 Hij., p.224

  5. Ghomi H.A.: Al-Safina Al--Behar, vol. 2. Sanaii Pub. 1355 Hij., p.603

  6. Hakimi M.R. et al: Al-Hayat, vol. 1. Daftar Nashre Farhang Eslami, 1358 Hij., p. 114

  7. Hosseini S.A: An elementary study on the principles of individual and group psychotherapy and mental health in Islam. Indian J Psychiatric 25(4)335, 1983.

  8. Hosseini S.A.: An elementary study on the fundamentals of the Islamic psychology, vol. 1, First edition.Mashhad university Press, 1985 pp. 230-272

  9. Khomeini: Talab va Eradeh, Persian version by Fehri. Markas Entesharat Elmi va Farhangi, 1963

  10. Majlesi M.B: Al-Bahar Al-Anvar, vol. 111, p. 6.

  11. Negari A.A.A: Jameo-Al-Oloom (Dastoor al-Olama),vol.1

  12. Daerat-al-Maaref. Heidar Abaad Dakan 1329 Hij., p.411

  13. Rashad M: Al-osool Al-Fegh. Eqbal Pub., p.228.Sadoogh: Al-Khesal. Persian version by Fehri. Entesharat Elmia Eslamiia

  14. Tabatabai M.H: Al-Tafsir Al-Mizan, Persian version by Moosavi. ohammadi Pub. 1384 Hij, vol. 11, pp. 316-327, vol. 22, pp.234-235

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Chapter 2:
A study on the genesis of the anxiety state

 


Summary
According to the Islamic School of Psychology there are two different and opposing inherent psychic processes in operation: namely, the conscience and the passion. The first one has an evolutionary and developmental nature; whereas the second can be considered as an instinctual motive. These two processes have an infinite number of urges. The personality of man and his volition depends on the authority of one of these two processes.
An individual whose conscience has authority over the self can solve all of his controversies between the conscience and the passion.
Contrary to the above process, in the case of an individual whose passion has authority over the self, the psychic conflict will arise because of unsolved controversies.
All the Divine instructions, according to Islamic psychology, are practical instruments to control the passion and to fortify the conscience. By this approach these instructions can be used as preventive and therapeutic methods to control the state of anxiety.

Introduction
The World Health Organization definition of “anxiety state” is as follows: various combinations of physical and mental manifestations of anxiety, not attributable to real danger and occurring either in attacks or as a persisting state. Anxiety is usually diffuse and may extend to panic (9).
Every school of psychology has interpreted the genesis of the anxiety state according to its own special viewpoint and in line with its approach to the understanding of personality.
The practicalities of these approaches are related to the degree of the realistic bases of these schools. Not one of the contemporary schools of psychology suggests a defined program to prevent the anxiety state. And, further, no protecting sanctions have been offered by these schools to prevent the anxiety state. The Islamic School of Psychology is an unique school of psychology; and with its special approach to the understanding of the anxiety state it can help us in preventing and treating this most prevalent psychiatric syndrome.
According to this school there are two different and opposing psychic processes in operation--namely, the conscience and the passion. Both processes are inherent, that is, they are not acquired. The first one has an evolutionary and developmental nature, whereas the second can be considered as an instinctual motive. The characteristics of these processes can be summarized as follows:

The characteristics of the conscience

  1. It is inherent, constitutional and not acquired.

  2. It is continuously present in the personality of everyone (but it may be weakened or strengthened).

  3. It is existent in all human beings.

  4. It universally accepts some subjects and judgments as obvious, e.g. Telling lies is bad; committing murder is illegal; etc.

  5. It has the potentiality to accept the truth and the existence of God.

  6. It acts as a judge whose judgments are respected by others.

  7. Behavior and judgment which are based on the conscience are clear and exact, truthful and without any dissimulation or cheating.

  8. It has the potential to differentiate between man’s benefits and detriment, and it acts like a compass.

  9. It blames the self when it commits wrong doing.

  10. There is close intimacy between the conscience and truth; and the conscience always tries to fulfill justice and truth.

  11. All duties and responsibilities have been based upon the conscience.

  12. Fulfillment of responsibilities facilitates its development, but there is always some resistance against these responsibilities. This resistance arises from the passion, and man usually accepts the Divine responsibilities with some reluctance.

  13. The Conscience has its own special energy. This energy may increase or decrease according to the concordance or opposition of one’s free will with its direction and programming.

  14. It is quite conscious of itself; therefore, behavior which is based on the dictates of the conscience is conscious.

  15. It has an evolutionary and developmental nature. This process is going on infinitely. It cannot tolerate any limitation in this process, and any conceivable factor which obstructs the process of the conscience will naturally cause an anxiety state.

  16. In order to fulfill its goals and to reach absolute development, the conscience is always at war with the passion. This war continues until the end of life.

  17. The dynamics of the conscience and its stimulation in the direction of development and maturity can be protected only by using the Divine laws. In this case the conscience will experience a feeling of security. If the contrary occurs, its movements will be stopped and an anxiety state, regret and the state of being cheated will come into existence. Consequently, a dark and dull life is the final result.

  18. Weakening of the conscience’s energy is due to the coverings which are brought about by the authority of the passion. The thickness and strength of these coverings are related to the strength of the passion and the extension of its authority over the self.

  19. Existence of the conscience in all human beings is the basis of social conscience. This trend is the key for the understanding of concordance or opposition between or within social groups. In individuals and groups where the conscience has authority over the self, the relationship between or within such individual groups is characterized by closeness, companionship and sympathy. However, there is continuous opposition, conflict and enmity between those individuals and groups wherein the authority of the self is differing and opposing in nature. This trend will come to an end by causing real wars (conflicts) between these two opposite groups.

  20. “Science” is the most important factor for strengthening the conscience. This factor makes the conscience alive, fresh, and facilitates its development.

  21. Weakening of the conscience is always due to the mechanisms which are unconsciously produced by the passion.

  22. God will protect, help and confirm one who has fortified his conscience. If man can succeed in giving authority to his conscience continuously, he may do supernatural things (like the prophets).

  23. It can be stated in general that any conceivable science or perfection is due to the activities of the conscience, and any defect is due to its weakness.

  24. Any positive value related to human beings is due to the conscience. Inversely, any negative value is due to the authority of the passion. This produces harmful and worthless results and consequent lapses in conduct.(3,4,5,6,7,8)

The characteristics of the passion
The most striking characteristics of the passion are as follows:

  1. It is inherent, constitutional, and not acquired.

  2. It is steady in the life of everyone (but it may be weakened or strengthened).

  3. It is existent in all human beings.

  4. It derives its special energy from biological needs. Instincts are the main source of the passion’s energy. This energy may increase or decrease according to the concordance or opposition of one’s free will to its demands and programming.

  5. The Passion is not conscious of its processes. This means that an individual whose passion has authority over the self cannot distinguish between those factors which may be harmful to his life on the one hand, and those factors which help him to attain more development on the other hand. Consequently, he may even harm himself voluntarily without being aware that he is doing so. The Qur’an defines these individuals as follows:
    "Those whose striving goes astray in the present life, while they think that they are doing good deeds."(Cave: 104)

  6. Its main goal is to develop and fulfill instinctual needs and to receive infinite pleasure. This process has infinite urges. It cannot tolerate any limitation in its desires. Any conceivable factor which obstructs the passion will naturally cause an anxiety state.

  7. This process always tries to gain authority over the self in order to fulfill its desires and to reach infinite pleasure. The Passion is always at real war with the process of the conscience, and this war continues till the end of life.

  8. When the passion gains authority over the self, the conscience will be weakened. The weakening of the conscience’s energy is due to the coverings which are the complications of the authority of the passion. The thickness and strength of these coverings is related to the strength of the passion and the extension of its authority over the self. The Passion usually fulfills its desires by the employment of some unconscious mechanisms. In this respect “the mechanism of decoration” is an example. According to the Qur’an:
    “As to those who do not believe in the hereafter, we have surely made their deeds fair-seeming to them, but they blindly wander on”. (Ant: 4)

  9. In general, it can be stated that any conceivable defect is due to its over-ruling authority.

  10. The passion is always in opposition to the conscience. As any positive value related to humans is due to the conscience, so also any negative value is related to the passion, which in turn produces harmful and worthless results. In other words, it is apparent that lapses in conduct may arise due to the exclusive authority of this factor.(2,5)

As we have already seen, the characteristics of the conscience and the passion are such that these two psychic processes are continuously in a state of conflict. The Prophet (PBUH) defines this conflict as a real war. The personality of man and his volition depends on the authority of one of these two processes (Ref.I, p.164).
From this it can be understood that there are two opposite individuals and correspondingly social groups in existence; and the characteristics of a given individual or group is determined by the process which has gained authority over the self. These two opposite individuals and groups have different and opposite motives, goals, and life styles in accordance with their own personalities. Consequently, in these two kinds of individuals the reaction to internal and external stimuli will be different and this naturally has an impact on the genesis of the anxiety state.
According to the Islamic viewpoint, psychic conflicts are due to the controversies between these two opposite processes. The controversies between the conscience and the passion can be categorized as follows:
1. Controversy between infinite urges of the passion on the one hand and physiological and social limitations to fulfill these insatiable demands on the other hand.
2. Controversy between pleasure-prone urges of the passion on one side and the developmental urges of the conscience on the other side.
3. Conflict between pleasure-prone and indefinite urges of the passion and natural limitations imposed by the basic environmental circles of life. (Diag. 2)
4. Conflict between persistent desires and their lack of satisfaction. Sometimes the individual may even confuse his goal in life; thereby lacking an exact aim. The latter, in turn, can be a source of anxiety and apprehension.

Diagram 2:
The relationships of the basic life circles of human beings

p29

In an individual whose conscience is fortified, that is, has authority over the self (Ref. to Diag. 3) his strivings will be confined to only one motive-namely, the motive to fulfill his responsibility to God and to win His favor.

Diagram 3:
Personality structure in a controlled person (according to the Islamic school of psychology)

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This individual can solve all of his controversies between the conscience and the passion by accommodating his behavior with the Divine instructions as follows:
1. A developed person whose conscience has gained authority over the self (Ref. Diag. 3) is able to control the infinite urges and desires of the passion. Hence there is no uncontrollable psychic conflict between his conscience and the passion.
2. All instinctual needs and demands have been directed or channeled in a rational way; for example, marriage and the establishment of a strong family structure. By virtue of this, instinctual urges can even help in developmental aims.
3. These individuals have solved their conflicts within their basic system of life by using the Divine instructions. (Diag. 2)
The routine work and relationship of every person can be divided into eight basic systems as follows:
1. The system of man’s relationship with himself.
2. Family system.
3. Social (significant peer and friendly groups) system.
4. Occupational system.
5. Scientific system.
6. The system of the relationship between man and nature.
7. Political system.
According to the Divine religions all of the seven basic systems of human beings should be surrounded by a greater one which is the system of the relationship between man and his Creator, i.e. the Divine system. (Ref. Diag. 2)
According to this approach there are precise rules in the Divine religions for each of the basic systems. Rights and responsibilities of every individual have been well-defined in these basic rules. These rules are not mere suggestions. It is mandatory for man to follow them up in order to gain multidimensional development in his life (this approach is the philosophy of life according to the Divine religions). By this approach one can prevent the anxiety state which is seen as a complication of disturbed inter-individual relationships.
In order to prevent excessive reactions due to involuntary life events such as natural calamities and catastrophes, etc., one can use the Islamic instructions as an instrument to increase psychic capacity and change the meaning of the accident. All accidents and involuntary stressful life events have a special meaning in Islam. According to Islam, all accidents are trials to discover and expose man’s initiatives. So he is responsible for enduring them and his position of development will be arranged according to his approach to these events. (4)
The only source of anxiety in a developed individual is his fear of not perfectly carrying out and obeying the Divine laws as God expects. If one bears in mind that according to Islam he is supposed to believe in God’s mercifulness and not be pessimistic, this urge can help him to act better and gain more development.
A feeling of security, extended psychic capacity, and the ability to deal with the difficulties of life are natural results of this ideal approach. This kind of personality, in its extremity, can be seen in prophets and other thoroughly developed individuals.
Contrary to the above process, in the case of an individual whose passion has authority over the self (Ref. Diag. 4) his goal is to reach infinite pleasure.

Diagram 4:
Personality structure in a non-controlled person (according to the Islamic school of psychology)

It can be said that this individual is planning his lifestyle according to his own desires. Bearing in mind the physiological and social limitations that are present which prevent the full satisfaction of these infinite instinctual desires. So, the psychic conflicts which naturally follows in the latter instance is easily comprehensible. As the conflicts of these individuals cannot be solved and may even increase, so also the psychic conflict continues and increases mutually. We can see this process in its full picture in some antisocial individuals whose brutal behaviors are the most striking characteristics in the history of mankind. This is also exemplified by the idolaters during the age of the Prophet (PBUH).

In most people, that is those who by usual standards are considered ordinary, the authority of the self changes intermittently and the potentiality for the genesis of the anxiety state exists in correspondence to the fluctuation between their conscience and the passion.(diag.5)
According to the Islamic psychology all the Divine instructions are practical instruments to control the passion and to fortify the conscience. Hence, if a given individual or society considers these instructions, there will be a powerful protecting sanction for the prevention of the anxiety state and other reactive psychiatric manifestations. The Divine laws can prevent the anxiety state when the following processes are considered:
1. To learn the Divine laws.
2. To accept the Divine laws.
3. To consider and use the Divine laws in every day practice of life.
In Prophets and other developed persons these three processes are fully developed and considered. These individuals have been exposed to overwhelmingly stressful life events without showing any fear or state of anxiety. They have been presented in the Qur’an as models for human beings. We can use the fundamentals of the Islamic School of Psychology as a therapeutic method. In this case the most important duty of the therapist is to try to make his client aware of his own psychic processes, to check the functions of the basic circles of his life, and to eradicate any imagined or real obstacles from the way of his development.
The individual can achieve this by accommodating his behavior with the Divine instructions.

References

  1. Ameli S.H: Al vasael Al-Shia, vol. 11. Al-Eslamiaa Pub., 1398 Hij., pp. 124,164.

  2. Amodi: Ghorar Al-Hekam. Tehran University Press, 1390 Hij. Sh., vol. 1, pp. 55, 206,220,230, vol. 2, pp. 23, 324, 434, 176, 224, 503, vol. 3, pp.. 88, 137, 135, vol. 4, p. 32, vol. 5, pp. 337, 438, vol. 6, pp. 370, 326.

  3. Jafari M.T: Vejdan.Moassase Matboati Eslami, 1347 Hij. Sh., p. 12.

  4. Hosseini S.A: Primary prevention of psychiatric disorders according to Islam.Bulletin of the Islamic Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp.. 598-603,1983.

  5. Hosseini, S.A:An elementary study on the fundamentals of the Islamic psychology, vol. 1. Mashhad University Press, 1981

  6. Khomeini R:Talab va eradeh, Persian version by Fehri. Markaz ntesharat Elmi Farhangue, 1363 Hij., pp. 155-157

  7. Motahari,, M: Fetrat. Pub. of the Islamic Society of Madreseh Aali Sakhteman, 1361 Hij. Sh., p. 27

  8. Tabatabai, M.H: Tafsir Almizan. Mohammadi Pub., 1343 Hij. Sh.,vol. 40,pp. 24, 248-335, 383-384, 310, vol. 17, p. 89, vol. 39, pp. 311, 320, vol. 38, pp.93, 95, 187, 194, 251, 151, vol. 11, p.295

  9. World Health Organization: Mental disorders glossary and guide to their classification in accordance with the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases. W.H.O., 1978, p. 35.


Chapter 3:
Primary Prevention on Psychiatric Disorders According to the Divine School of Psychology


• Primary Prevention
Primary prevention is the prevention of a specific undesirable state, whether it is a state of disturbed feelings, a state of disturbed thoughts, a reaction pattern that is undesirable, a
Stress reaction, a formal illness or a disease state (Freedman, 1980).
Robert (1970) has suggested that “prevention” is the removal of the noxious agent, strengthening host resistance and preventing contact between the agent and the host. Elaine Cummings (1968), in this respect, suggested two approaches: to find out the causes of the phenomenon and to remove the cause and to discover the characteristics of immune populations, through epidemiological research and find methods to get other at-risk populations to resemble immune populations (Freedman, 1980).
Although the bases of the above suggestions are acceptable, in the field of mental health, i.e. prevention of psychiatric diseases and especially the reactive manifestations, we confront a great deal of problems. First of all, the removal of noxious agents depends on many factors.
Let us begin with the anxiety state and neurotic depressions, the most common symptoms in the world. These two mutual symptoms are fundamental modes of response in the normal adaptation to environmental circumstances. The stresses that help in producing anxiety and reactive depression may be many and various. The stresses may be external or internal, but usually both are combined. The symptoms, indeed, may arise as much from the personality and special meaning of stresses for the individual as from the actual situation (Curran, 1965).
Then, how should we remove the stressful life events, and how can we prevent contact between stressful life events and the individual? According to Islam, man is responsible for his voluntary behavior, so he can and should prevent voluntary stressful life events. According to the Islamic principles, preventing and eradicating the main source and cause of involvement should be considered in primary prevention strategies. I will mention some of these preventive strategies in personality disorders, alcoholism and drug dependence.
By very extensive and repetitive teachings, Islam has clarified the duties and rights of everyone. Every human being is responsible to God for considering and observing these instructions and behaving according to the principle of the unity of God, i.e. to use the Divine instructions as a model for everyday practice of life .Over all, man is responsible for arranging and programming his activities according to the Divine laws.
Islam has a very special instructive plan for every basic circle (system) of human life, i.e. family circle (system), occupational circle (system), the circle (system) of friendly and group relationships, the relations between the human being and nature, the political circle (system), and the relationship between man and his Creator (Divine system). (Ref. Diag. 2)

Islam’s Prophet teaches that:
O, slaves of Allah, you are as patients, and the Lord of the World as a physician.
The well-being of a patient is due to the knowledge of the physician and his policy, not due to the desires of the patient and what he likes. So, do surrender to the commands of God in order to gain prosperity.F1
Consequently, Islam teaches us to control our instincts and desires and not to relax them; and it considers this control of instincts as a criterion of mental health.

According to Imam Ali:
The authority of passions (instincts) is like fatal calamities and the best remedy is to resist them. When wisdom is developing, passion will diminish. In one who overcomes his passions, wisdom will appear.F2
So, instincts should be under the supervision of conscience and free will as well.
Conscience, which has been defined as a natural and non-acquisition power and called in Arabic “Fetrat”, is responsible in preventing human beings from lapsing in conduct.
The complete teachings and instructions in Islam, either the fundamentals of ideology and laws, or moral suggestions and ethics of this redeemable school, can and should be considered as effective instruments and measures to fortify the conscience and free will in order to control the instincts and human desires. The overall teachings and educations by this strategy facilitate the development of human beings and prevent him from lapsing in conduct.
These teachings, which are quite popular, can adjust personal and social life processes .So one is responsible for considering and using these rules which have been suggested by his Creator to facilitate safety for himself and social aspects of life.
Of course, we can compare the lives of true Muslims with others through research, and it is a wide field for the future. But it is conceivable that these rules will have their automatic preventive results, if people consider their rights and duties according to the Divine laws and they act accordingly. With respect to these approaches, Islam’s Prophet defines a Muslim as follows:
A Muslim is one who is secure in his actions and speech (Thoughts).F3
Consider, if one’s deeds and thoughts are proper, can he not prevent voluntary stressful life events, and remove the causes of many reactive psychiatric disorders whose causes are voluntary stresses in inter-individual relationships?
In order to prevent extravagant reactions to involuntary life events, such as natural calamities and catastrophes, wars, etc., we can also use the Islamic instructions as an instrument to increase psychic capacity and change the meaning of the accidents.
All accidents and involuntary stressful life events have special meanings in Islam.
According to Islam, all accidents are trials to discover and present man’s initiatives. So he is responsible for enduring them, and to consider that his situation of development will be arranged according to his approaches to the events. Thus, no accident should be considered as an occasional event.

According to the Qur’an:
No affliction befalls, except it be by the leave of God. Whosoever believes in God, He will guide his heart, and God has knowledge of everything. (Mutual Disillusion: 11)F4 or:

And we try you with evil and with good for a testing. (The Prophets: 35)F5
Or:
Your wealth and your children are only a trial, whereas Allah with him is an imminent reward. (Mutual Disillusion: 15)F6
Or:
Blessed is He in Whose hand is the sovereignty, and He is powerful over all things who hath created life and death that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct; and He is the Almighty, the All-Forgiving. (The Kingdom: 1-2)F7
Or:
Do men reckon that they will be left (at ease) because they say: We believe, and will not be tried with affliction?
Lo, We certainly tried those who were before them (you). (The Spider: 2-3)F8
Or:
And surely We shall try you with something of fear and hunger and loss of wealth and lives and crops: Yet give glad tidings unto the steadfast, who when they are visited by a misfortune say: Lo, surely we belong to Allah, and Lo, unto Him we are returning.
(The Cow: 155-156)F9

Sometimes, these trials and ordeals are instruments for punishment in order that the individual might compensate himself. According to the Qur’an:
And we seized them with distress and adversity in order that they might grow humble.(Cattle: 42)F10

So, a true Muslim will never be pessimistic due to stressful life events; and considers himself as completely dependent upon God, in whom he believes and considers Him as his guide, director and supporter. According to the Qur’an:
Say: Nothing will befall us save that which Allah has decreed for us. He is our patron; and in Allah let believers rely and put their trust. (Repentance: 51)F11
Or:
Allah is the protector of the believers. (The Cow: 257)F12

Oh Men, you are the ones that have need of God; and Allah is He the All-sufficient, the owner of praise. (The Creator: 15)F13
Islam considers the world as a place in which the difficulties and calamities are natural ones of its components. According to the Qur’an:

Certainly we have created man in distress. (The City:4)F14
By this very realistic teaching, man should expect difficulties and sufferings, and should be ready to solve and endure them. This principle will increase the rate of individual tolerance against stressful life events by assuming the difficulties to be world-wide, and not to be his exclusive and allocated problems.
As we mentioned before, according to the Islamic laws a Muslim is not allowed to harm himself or others, so any drug which would harm any aspect of man is forbidden.

According to the Qur’an:
Who slays a soul, not to retaliate for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land, shall be as if he had slain mankind altogether; and whose gives life to a soul , shall be as if he had given life to mankind. (The Table : 32)F15
Or:
And whose slays a believer willfully, his recompense is Hell (Jahanna), there in dwelling forever, and God will be wroth with his mighty chastisement. (Women: 93)F16
The subject of retaliation has been produced as an instrument for continuing human life; so it prevents murder and harm to others.
To prevent sexual deviation, Islam suggests, encourages and facilitates the marriage procedure. It has forbidden other sexual experiences. This approach has been supported by moral instructions and legal punishments as well.

The Islamic laws have forbidden drugs which cause disturbances in inhibitory system of the brain and make the user unrealistic. Alcoholic beverages have been forbidden, too, because of the above reasons. In accordance with these legal regulations, there are many moral teachings which increase disgust against these drugs and alcoholic beverages. One of these teachings considers alcoholic beverages unclean.
Thus, as in the case of any other uncleanness, one is supposed to avoid, in order to be able to fulfill his religious duties. Alcoholism, however, has never been a great problem in our country, although there have always been hands at work to tempt our people to drink.
After the Islamic Revolution, all factories which produced alcoholic beverages changed to medical-alcohol or non-alcoholic beverage producers. All bars and those shops which sold alcoholic beverages were closed. The Islamic laws which suggested whipping wine drinkers were put into practice, and hard punishment was approved for the peddlers of drugs and/or the users.
In order to compare the prevalence of drug dependence and alcoholism among the students of the Islamic Republic of Iran, we chose 311 students of Mashhad University as a random sample; and we used the World Health Organization Questionnaire to Survey the Use of Drugs and Alcoholism in Youth. Thirteen percent of the students were chosen at random for opium derivations. The results were then compared with the prevalence of alcoholism and drug dependence in the students of several Western and Asian countries. The data which we collected showed that the prevalence of alcoholism and drug dependence among Iranian students is approximately zero. Although it may be necessary to survey the same study in different parts of the country, since the result is very much striking and there is not much difference in the various cities of our country, the result may be roughly generalized; and one can assume that this is the trend of alcoholism and drug dependence in all Iranian universities. The results show a significant and meaningful difference between our culture and other places mentioned above (the detail of this study will be published in the future issues of the Journal of
Fundamentals of Mental Health).

Discussion and conclusions
Now that we have reached the end of our debate, what lessons and results can be drawn from it? Although we should consider research activities in the field of neurochemistry, we are supposed to consider the ecological factors, which sometimes intervene in psychiatric disorders by changing the environment or the patient’s approach to stressful life events.
The life style of the individual and population is quite important in this respect.
So, the Islamic instructions which cover the style of life of about 1,000,000,000 of the world’s population should be evaluated.
Islam confirms scientific activities and research, and considers these methods as very essential and indispensable procedures for which every Muslim is responsible. In addition to this approach, it has special theoretical and practical methods for prevention of diseases generally, and for psychiatric disease particularly. These methods are more or less used by the Islamic population; but even more instructions are necessary in this field. We can see the results more clearly in an educated Islamic population and well-trained Muslims. It may be assumed that the approach which makes everyone responsible in taking part in preventive methods of disease is the more striking policy of Islam in this field. If we consider the extension of these teachings among the population and more supportive ways in the fields of ethics and legacy, the applicability of this strategy would be more clear.
In conclusion, when reality testing is not disturbed, the individual is responsible for his behavior .In this case, preventive methods have been severely supported by sanctions. These methods are not considered only in suggestion, and every one is responsible in following them up; and in case of neglect, he will be punished by legal authorities .We can mention this trend in murder. There are warnings and threats about the otherworldly punishments which have been fixed by God.

For example, as we mentioned before, according to the Qur’an: Suicide in all cases and murder without God’s permission are synonymous with killing all human beings, and they shall dwell forever in Hell (Jahanna).
These instructions have great affects, even on laymen Muslims. We are repeatedly told by our clients, that if God had not forbidden suicide, they would have already committed it.
We can see effective Islamic laws with the above strategy in the realms of alcoholism, drug addiction, homosexuality in both sexes, masturbation, violation of the rights of others, homicide, cruelty to the family or others and even to animals, etc. which should be studied from the mental health view.
All these teachings which have been put on a logical basis have been confirmed by the Islamic laws “to prevent any probable harm and no one is allowed to harm himself or others”.
Finally, in conclusion, we can say that according to Islam preventive methods of disease is considered a duty for which the whole population is responsible. Of course, repeated teachings and instructions can help to give more insight and warning to the population, and that is our duty.

References

  1. Al-Harrani: Tohafol-oghool. Eslamiye Pub., 1400 Hej., p. 45

  2. Amodi: Ghorarol-Hekam, vol. 2. Tehran University Press, 1981, p. 22

  3. Curran D and Partridge M: Psychological Medicine. Livingston, 1965

  4. Glorious Qur’an: Interpreted by Arthur J. Arberry. Center of the Islamic Studies

  5. Gross, Mayor, Slater E. and Rother M: Clinical Psychiatry. Billoiere, 1970, pp. 85-102

  6. Holy Qur’an (The): English translation by M.H. Shakir. Muslimgroup

  7. Hosseini S.A: Fundamentals of mental health, vol. 1. Mashhad UniversityPress, 1981

  8. Hosseini, S.A: Fundamentals of mental health, vol. 2. Mashhad UniversityPub., 1982

  9. Hosseini S.A: An elementary study on the principles of individual and group psychotherapy and mental health in Islam. Indian J Psychiatry (1983), 25(4), 335-337

  10. Kaplan H, Freedman A and Sadock B: Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Williams and Wilkins, 1980, pp. 546-47, 2859-2867, 2860- 2862

  11. Majmoii Varram, pp. 117

  12. Makarem: Al-Ghavaedol-Fegh-hiya. Sadr Pub., 1382 Hej., pp. 22-101

chapter3

 


 

strong>Chapter 4:
An Elementary Study on the Principles of Individual and Group Psychotherapy and Mental Health in Islam

• Mr. Chairman, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen
What I am going to present today is not my personal point of view, rather, it is my recollections and close observations into the Islamic viewpoints to underline the fundamentals of psychology, psychotherapy and mental health. Islam, though emphasizing the genuineness of psyche, and treating man as a combination of chemical agents and a non-chemical factor, defined as “psyche”, that which is responsible for the coordination of chemical agents and gives life to his total organism; considers the brain as the center of reasoning. Through Islamic points of view we can interpret both human dimensions i.e. physiological aspects and psychological processes as well. (7)
According to Islamic Psychology there are two different and opposite psychic processes in mankind--namely conscience and passion---which are inherent and not acquired. The first one has an evolutionary and developmental nature; and the second is instinctual motives. Man’s reasoning ability as realized in his free will, however, help him to activate the former and control the latter accordingly or vice versa. Conscience, like any other psychological terminology, has a slightly different definition in Islam. Here are some characteristics attributed to conscience according to our understanding of Islam.

Characteristics of Conscience
1. Potential to differentiate between man’s benefits and his harm.
2. Inherent, constitutional and not acquired.
3. Constant in the lives of every one (but it may be weakened or strengthened).
4. Exists in all human beings.
5. Acts as a judge whose judgments are respected by others.
6. Universally it accepts some subjects and judgments as quite obvious, such as telling lies is bad, committing murder is illegal, etc.
7. Potential to accept truth and the existence of God.
8. It blames the self when it commits wrong-doing.
9. It is quite conscious.
10.It acts like a compass.
The process of conscience has been presented as a firm and unchangeable common-principle for all mankind--which is the part of his personality which enables him to fulfill his needs and differentiate between his benefits and detriment and, like a compass, directs him to move straight forward towards developmental aims.
The unchanging nature of conscience in mankind during his life and history has been confirmed in the Qur’an:
So set they purpose (O, Mohammad) for religion as a man by nature upright the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering the laws of Allah’s creation. That is the right religion, but most know not. (Rome: 30)
Islamic scholars such as Ayatollah Tabatabai and Martyr Mortaza Motahari have come to believe under the light of the verse above that conscience, like instincts, has an inherent basis; in other words it is not acquired. They believe that the conscience process is conscious contrary to instincts which are unconscious. (7, 12)
We should not only familiarize ourselves with the characteristics of conscience mentioned above, but also try to use them in the methods of education, psychotherapy and mental health. We should know that some beliefs and judgments have been naturally accepted by the conscience which we can use for inter-individual relationship and any other related humanistic aspects. Acceptance of truth in general and the existence of God in particular are only two of the potentialities of conscience.
Moreover, the Islamic laws taught by God are in accordance with man’s conscience, and they should be considered as a model for the developmental movements of man and to prevent any lapse in conduct.
It has been emphasized that every law or item of education mentioned in the Qur’an has potentiality to fulfill the real needs of mankind. By accepting these laws, and acting accordingly, there would be an opportunity for the development and richness of man’s conscience, and the individual will have a very extended psychic capacity. Otherwise, his psychic capacity will be very restricted; and therefore, his life would be meaningless and intolerable. According to the Qur’an:
Whomsoever God desires to guide, he expands his breast to Islam; whosoever He desires to lead astray, He makes his breast narrow, tight as if he were climbing to heaven .So God lays abomination upon those he believes not. This is the path of thy Lord; straight; we have distinguished the signs to a people who remember. Theirs is the abode of peace with their Lord, and He is their protector for that they were doing.
(The Cattle: Chapter 6, verse 126)
Translation from Arthur J. Arberry And once more:
But whosoever turns away from my remembrance, his shall be a life of narrowness and on Resurrection Day we shall raise him blind. He shall say, O my Lord, why hast thou raised me blind, and I was wont to see. God shall say, even so it is. Our signs come unto thee and thou didst forget them, and so today thou art forgotten. (Taha: 124).
Translation from Arthur J. Arberry
For the improvement of cases with restricted psychic capacity, usually manifested by reactive psychiatric symptoms, the psychotherapist should try to help the referral be reconciled with his conscience and strengthen it by more acceptance of the Divine laws and to act accordingly. However, as mentioned above, man’s reasoning ability as realized in his free will helps him to activate the conscience and control the passions or vice versa. In the first case, instinctual powers are under the supervision of conscience and facilitate his developmental movement. In the second case (weakened conscience), instinctual powers supervise the whole personality, and the individual will lapse in conduct.
According to Islam, conscience and the Divine laws fortify each other, and man has to accept and use these laws if he is interested in developing his personality.

Chapter 103 of the Qur’an holds that:
Lo! Man is in a state of loss, save those who believe and do good works, and counsel one another to truth and counsel one another’s endurance…

The criteria of psychic development which have been pointed out in these verses are as follows:
1. Belief in God and other truths
2. To act according to one’s faith and belief
3. To try to generalize the truth as far as possible
4. To tolerate difficulties in the way of the generalization of the truth and to counsel one another to do the same .The negative aspects of the above criteria are the bases of psychic loss.

Diagram 5:
Different forms of movements throughout developmental direction and loss

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On these bases, according to Islam, the whole education of the Qur’an can help man to develop himself and prevent loss, and the way of development is exactly monopolistic to the Divine laws.
Diagram 7 indicates that there is only one way for psychic development, and other ways will end astray. The way of development is exactly monopolistic.

Straight path according to Islam's prophet (PBUH)
One day when the followers of the prophet (PBUH) were around him, he educated them by this picture. He drew a straight line on the ground by a little stone and said:" this is the straight path to God." Then he drew many lines in different directions, and said: "These are deviate paths."

It shows that the prophet used visual training with his simple instruments (i.e. Ground and Stone).
Diagram 7:
The way of development is exactly monopolistic

According to the Islamic educations , when one is going through a wrong pathway, further movement will take him even further from his aim. (Diag. 8)
The Islamic principles which seem vital for the development of mankind can be used in the areas of psychotherapy, mental health and other related subjects. I have elicited 40 principles by this approach, some of them are mentioned below:

Imam Ali (PBUH):
Left and right (paths) are misdirection. The middle one is the main path.
Diagram 8:
Deviation from the straight pathway to the right or left

The First principle: the unity of God. According to this principle, programming in individual, social, familial, scientific, economical and political affairs should be in accordance to the Divine laws.
We can divide routine work and relationships of each person into the following seven basic circles (system):
1. The circle (system) of relationship of man with himself.
2. Family circle (system).
3. Significant peer group and friendly circle (system).
4. Occupational circle (system).
5. Scientific circle (system).
6. The circle (system) of the relationship between man and the nature.
7. Political circle (system).
According to Islam all basic circles should be surrounded by a greater one, which is the circle (system) of the relationship between man and his Creator (Divine circle). (Diag. 2)
If the individual does not go in this direction, he will be on the wrong path and lose. According to the Qur’an:
Those who judge not according to what God has sent down , are unbelievers. Those who judge not according to what God has sent down are evil doers. Who so ever judges not according to what God has sent down, are the ungodly?
(The Table: 44, 45, 47)
This approach seems quite reasonable because, whenever you buy a mechanical set, you immediately ask for its catalogue. Then why do we not ask for the effective factors of development and loss of man’s complex bio-psychosocial system from his Creator, God?

The Second principle: The necessity of judgment on the basis of awareness and knowledge, and invalidity of judgment according to surmise. According to the Qur’an:
And pursue not that thou has no knowledge of, the hearing, the sight, the heart. All of those shall be questioned of, and most of them follow only surmise and surmise avail naught against truth.
(The Night Journey: 36 - Jonah: 36)
So judgment and programming for a healthy community should be according to knowledge, awareness, and reasoning.

The Third principle: Meaningfulness of life, with an emphasis on maturity and the evolution of man’s conscience, so as to win God’s favor.
According to the Qur’an:
We created not the heavens and earth and all that between them is, in play, most of them know it not. (Smoke: 28-29)
The Qur’an teaches men to have continuous movement in the direction of maturity and development and to follow the straight pathway.
Every Muslim asks God ten times per day in his prayers to guide him on the straight pathway. The Qur’an tells us:
All have degrees according to what they have done. (Cattle: 132)
So, in order to gain higher degrees of evolution one should do his best. According to the Qur’an, every person has his special goal for which he works according to his own manner.
And each one hath a goal towards which he turneth, so vie with one another in good works. Whosesoever may be, Allah will bring you all together. Lo! Allah is able to do all things. (The Cow: 148)
Glorify the name of your Lord, the most High, who makes (things) according to a measure, then guides (them to their goal). (The Most High: 1-2)
Say every man works according to his own manner; but your Lord knows very well what man is best guided as to the way. (The Night Journey: 84)
The contemporary interpreter of the Qur’an, Ayatollah Tabatabai, when explaining these verses says:
Every creature has been guided to reach its highest degree of accomplishment. This general rule is quite valid in man, too.
In order to gain the highest degrees of development, one should continue the Divine laws. In this case his behavior would be colored by the Divine colors and every acceptable action in his daily life will make him nearer to God. (Ref. Diag. 9) The degree of his accomplishment is infinite and beyond human perception.
(We take our) color from Allah, and who is better than Allah in coloring? (The Cow : 138)

Diagram 9 :
Every acceptable action is a step of development during life
p18

The Fourth principle: The belief in the supervision of God on humanity, his intervention in their every day activities and denial of casualty. According to the Qur’an:
No affliction befalls except it be by the leave of God. Whosoever believes in God, He will guide his heart. And God has knowledge of everything.
(Mutual Fraud: 11, 15)
Your wealth and your children are only a trial.
And again:
Blessed be He in whose hand is the Kingdom. He is powerful over everything who created death and life, that might try you which of you is the fairest in works, and He is the Almighty, the All-forgiving.
(The kingdom: 1-2)
And surely we shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and crops; but give glad tidings unto the patient who say, When a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah’s and Lo! unto Him we are returning.
(The Cow: 155-156)
He is with you wherever you are; and God sees the things you do. Hast thou not seen that God knows whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth? Three men conspire not secretly together, but He is the fourth of them, neither five men, but He is the sixth of them, neither fewer than that, neither more, but He is with them wherever they may be. Then He shall tell them what they have done on the day of Resurrection. Surely God has knowledge of everything. (The Pen: 7)
We indeed created man, and we know what his soul whispers within him, and we are nearer to him than the jugular vein. (The Moon: 16)
By accepting this education and approach, accidents and stresses have less harmful effects upon the life of a believer in God, because he considers accidents as trials. Thus he is cautious not to be irritable, and he tries his best to be patient. Through all these procedures he hopes to reap inconceivable rewards that have been promised by God. This individual, with his very extended psychic capacity, believes in God as his strongest support.
According to what has already been presented, man is not only able to schedule his every day life, but he can also use these instructions in individual and group psychotherapy and open a new door to a better mental health approach. We can help those cases whose chief complaint is a feeling of hindrance in front of their path to go straight by removing the obstacles and helping them to go ahead. This principle is also of choice in the cases which Victor Frankle calls “noogenic neurosis” (lack of meaning of life). That is, if one has a dynamic movement through the straight way, in the direction of maturity and development he is healthy because his life is meaningful; but if he has no aim in his life or he has stopped or regressed to an animal stage, then he is ill, and he needs aimed psychotherapy.
Discovering the practical role of religion in psychotherapy and mental health will fill the gap that already exists in our every day practice in these fields, and some contemporary psychologists and psychiatrists such as Alport and Albee have noted it.
Alport says: Psychology initially separated itself sharply from religion." Psychology without a soul became its badge of distinction and of pride"
He mentions again:
"Since the progress and prestige of psychology depends upon its preserving a strictly scientific orientation, there is no prospect unless an authoritarian darkness should engulf the world that the historical separation of inductive psychology from deductive ideology whether philosophical, political or religious will end."
In the next place he says:" There is inherent absurdity in supposing that psychology and religion, of man’s mind, must be permanently and hopelessly at odds. As different as the science and art in their axioms and methods, they have learned to cooperate in a thousand ways in production of finer dwelling, music, clothing, and dressing. Why should not science and religion, likewise differing in axioms and methods, yet cooperate in the production of an improved human character, without which all other human gains are tragic loss? From many sides today comes the demand that religion and psychology busy themselves in finding a common ground for unifying their efforts for human welfare. "
Alport finally resolves:" Those who are interested in both psychological science and religion are quite naturally asking what the two subjects have to do with each other. Both seem so intimate to the future destiny of the human race."
Albee, too, pinpointing the social problems, emphasizes the life style as follows:
"It is increasingly recognized that reactive disorders, drug addictions, alcoholism, sexual deviations and antisocial behaviors reflect the life style of populations, and that changes in these circumstances are probably as important as anything else in significantly reducing their prevalence."
He continues:
"If professional psychologists were truly concerned with human welfare, we would forget psychiatric patients for a century and turn our attention to the psychological causes of racism, sexism and that of the profit motive as sources of danger to human life."
According to Albee again:
"Everything aimed at improving the human condition of making life more fulfilling and meaningful may be considered part of the primary prevention of mental and emotional disturbance."
Now, can we not consider the Divine education as the vital support in this way?

References

1. Alport-Gordon W: The individual and his religion. The Macmillan Co., pp. ix-x, 1970
2. Arberry A: Interpretation of Quran. Pub. of Center of the Islamic Studies, P.O. Box 12, Qum, Iran
3. Hawks DV: Prevention--it’s desirable---but is it possible? Pub. of Div. of Mental Health. WHO, pp. 2-12, 1978
4. Hosseini SA: Fundamentals of Mental Health, vol. 2. pp. 11-51 Mashhad Univ. Pub., 1982
5. Jafari, Mohammad Taghi: Vejdan. Pub. by Moassesse Matbooati, Eslami, pp. 12, 1969
6. Jafari, Mohammad Taghi: Tarjomeh, va Tafsire Nahjolbalagha, vol. 11. Daftar Nashr Farhang Eslami Pub., pp. 291-298, 1981
7. Motahari, M: Majmooee Maghalat. Jahan Pub., pp. 105-123, 1972
8. Motahari M: Esalate Rooh. pp. 11-22, 1975, Sadra Pub
9. Mulla Sadra. Asfaar, Persian Version, vol. 4. pp. 112
10. Picthall. The meaning of the Glorious Quran. Pub. A, 1950, Mentor Religious Classic, 1958
11. Tabarsi, Sheikh. Tafsir Maj-mal-Bahrain, Trans. by A. Beheshti. Farahani Pub., vol. 4, pp. 200-201,1965
12. Tabatabai, Ayatollah. Tafsir Almizan, Trans. by Moosavi, vol. 11,pp. 303-328, vol. 40, p. 373.


 

Chapter 5:
The Criteria of Counseling and Psychotherapy According to the Islamic Perspectives


Abstract
According to Imam Sadegh (PBUH) counseling should be done according to its own criteria as follows:
The Consultant should be a mature, controlled, broadminded person, well-trained in the Divine laws. His behavior should be adjusted to these rules as well. He should be sincere and have a friendly manner. He should be thoroughly informed about the situation in order to know the realities of the client’s lifestyle as well as himself. He should keep all secrets in confidence. Any lack of the mentioned criteria may result harmful counseling.

Psychiatric counseling should be followed by psychotherapy. According to Wolberg, psychotherapy follows the goals mentioned below:
1. Promoting more adaptive behavior patterns
2. Removing modifying or retarding symptoms of mental illness or psychological discomfort
3. Stimulating personality development.
These goals are quite realistic which can be followed in all psychotherapeutic interventions, and there is no exception for the Islamic Trend.
I have categorized the Islamic perspective on psychotherapy into forty basic rules to cover these three basic goals, and I have called them “The Principles of Development”. The consultant, after reviewing the client’s lifestyle, should decide what rule or rules should be followed in this special trend of individual or group psychotherapy.
In every day usage, the word counseling denotes the giving of advice. As a technical term, it denotes a wider procedure concerned with emotion as well as with giving information.
Psychotherapy is the result which the counselee gains from counseling. Wolberg (1954) defines psychotherapy as: “certain consciously chosen ways in which, within the framework of a deliberately established professional relationship, trained individuals interact with people who seek or need their attention for the purposes of:
1. Promoting more adaptive behavior patterns
2. Removing, modifying, or retarding symptoms of mental illness or psychological discomfort, and
3. Stimulating personality development.”
The role played by culture has increasingly come to be recognized in each aspect of counseling from assessment to intervention. There is general agreement that the culture of both the providers and users of counseling services influence the counseling process both pervasively and profoundly (Ponter H, Casas, Suzuki and Alexander, 1995). (14)
All counseling occurs in a cultural context and culture has been described as the invisible and silent, yet crucial component of the counseling experience. The greater the cultural difference between the counselor and counselee, the more noticeable and obtrusive is the role of culture in the counseling experience. The potential is increased for a clash of expectations, misunderstandings of intentions and sorrow and entanglements in counseling relationships.
The subjective cultures of both counselor and counselee come into play, composed as they are of assumptions and conclusions that appear to be self-evident in a specific milieu, but are rarely verbalized and even less frequently challenged. Yet we also assume that counseling is not a culture-bound collection of procedures that loses all relevance outside of its cultural milieu. What then about counseling is stable across time and space? (14)
In attempting to answer that question, it is helpful to define counseling broadly rather than narrowly. On the one hand, we know that culture cuts deeply into the person’s inner life, even shaping and self-experience. On the other hand, perceptive observers have been able to discern commonness in personalities that are helpful for intervention in vastly different cultures. The scope of cross cultural counseling is bounded by these two extremes as counselors strive to integrate sensitivity to culture with effective mass of intervention. In our age, cultural differences in all counseling relationships are the rule rather than the exception. (14)
We can see a gap for the Islamic perspectives in counseling and psychotherapy. Islam has authority on the lives of more than one billion people in different parts of the world. As Islamic perspectives have been instilled in the nature of men, so, there is the potentials that it can be accepted by all humans.
In the Qur’an even the Prophet is ordered to consult in his affairs F (Footnote) 1, and consultation is one of the criteria for believers in God F2. The criteria of counseling have been clarified by Imam Sadegh (PBUH) who said that:" The Consultant should be a controlled, mature person who is broadminded, well-trained in the Divine laws and adjusts his behavior to these rules as well. He should have sincere and friendly contact. It is quite necessary to be thoroughly informed about the situation in order to know the realities of the client’s lifestyle as well as himself. He should be confident with all secrets. In the lack of any of mentioned criteria, the counseling may even be harmful."F3
Imam Sadegh in other instructions, too, confirms that the consultant should be a controlled individual. He warns that it is necessary for the counselee to follow his messages and not to oppose him, otherwise the counselee will be confronted with some disturbances.F4, 8
The consultant should try his best to discover the reasonable solution of the problem. If the solution is not clear, he should postpone answering and devote enough time, even for some days, and he should always think about the problem using his whole power of thought and wisdom. The Imam (PBUH) warns that God will punish the Counselor if he does not try his best.F9 The Prophet (PBUH) confirms that consultation prevents regret and reproach.F9 , 10 Counseling is the strongest support and the unique method to access the straight way to solve problems. F12, 13 Imam Ali (PBUH) warns that if the counselee conceals his secrets from the counselor, he has cheated himself.F14
The Islamic perspectives on counseling and psychotherapy are based on the the Islamic School of Psychology. This school, with its basic principles, has its role as a practical instrument in counseling and psychotherapy. According to these basic principles, there are two different and opposite psychic processes in operation in human personality; namely conscience and passion. The processes are inherent; that is, they are not acquired. The first one has an evolutionary and developmental nature, whereas the second can be considered as an instinctual motive.F7, 8
Development which has been mentioned by Wolberg as one of the targets of psychotherapy is the main target of the Islamic School of Psychology.
The word “development” in the sense of continuous evolution has been defined as a criterion for the mature person. According to this school, in order to gain real development, man is supposed to believe in Allah and to try always to do his best by using the Divine instructions. We can find this approach in the 186th verse of the second chapter of the Qur’an. “And when my servant questions thee concerning me, I am near to answer the call of the caller when he calls to me. So let them respond to me, and let them believe in me, haply so they will develop.”F26
The whole Qur’an is a guide to development. According to the Qur’an,
“It is a guide to development.” (Jinn: 2)F20
Allama Tabatabai, interpreting this verse, believes that access to reality in everything is synonymous to development. Multidimensional development, Perfection and evolution are the reasons and results of believing in God and obeying Him.
The Prophet (PBUH) says:
“One whose two days are equal is a cheated one. F27
By this approach psychic development should be continuously followed up and to this there is no conceivable stop.
So, we can name the Islamic messages as:
“The principles of development”
As the Divine instructions are very extensive, we have to summarize them in some practical principles. After many years of discussion in academic groups, I have succeeded in categorizing these into forty basic principles. As mentioned above, when the Qur’an wants to put its basic target, it says: “It directs to development.” So the Divine instructions are unique and exclusive instruments to offer development. Keeping this in mind, I have presented the above principles as “The Basic Principles of Development”.(6-10)
The prerequisite processes to enable the basic principles of development to have practical results in preventing stress-related manifestations are as follow:
1. To be learned
2. To be accepted
3. To be used in everyday practice of life
It seems that one of the reasons of non-acceptable and pathologic reactive states in mankind which appear as “faulty lifestyle” is the lack and deficiency of the above processes. On the other hand, the psychopathology of the reactive manifestations can be summarized as follows:
1. One did not learn the principles of development.
2. One did not accept the principles of development.
3. One did not use the principles of development.
So, it is the duty of the therapist to discover what principle or principles have been neglected?
The following processes are necessary for the therapeutic procedure:
1. To train the counselee with the neglected principle.
2. Convince him to accept it.
3. Urge him to use and follow it up in his everyday practice of life.
It seems that the Islamic perspectives can help us in all the targets of psychotherapy mentioned above.
Basic structure for counseling milieu is the existence of conscience in the counselee and counselor and in all humans. Conscience has the possibility to put itself in the situation of others. If we have conflicts with others, we usually say, “What would you do if you were in my shoes?” This saying confirms the acceptance of conscience in both sides of the contention. In counseling and psychotherapy, the counselee is aware of this fact and asks the counselor, who is usually in a higher position, to help him. The counselor, because of his previous training is acquainted with the motivations of human behavior, nature of man and psychological interactions, and can help his clients if his conscience is stronger than his passion. Otherwise, his suggestions may be harmful. This is the reason for the instructions of Imam Sadegh (PBUH) who confirms that the consultant should be a controlled, mature person who has been well-trained in the Divine laws and can adjust his behavior to these rules as well. In the lack of mentioned criteria, the counseling may even be harmful. By this approach, it is necessary to select the students of medical colleges, psychiatry and clinical branches of psychology and counseling from students who use the Divine laws practically. According to the Islamic School of Psychology all the Divine instructions are practical instruments to control passion and to fortify the conscience.F9, 10

Hence, in a given individual or society which considers these instruction, there will be powerful protecting sanctions to prevent the anxiety state and other stress-related manifestations and to gain multidimensional development.
We can lean on two verses of the Qur’an as the basis of the above approach: “Remembrance of God rests the heart.” (Thunder: 28)F21

Imam Sadegh (PBUH) interpreting this verse says that: “Remembrance of God means: Using God’s laws in all situations.”
Another verse of the Qur’an clarifies:
“But whosoever turns away from my remembrance shall surely lead a straight, narrow life.”(Ta Ha:124)F22
Allama Tabatabai, interpreting this verse says:
"The goal of anyone who is under the authority of passion is to reach infinite pleasure. As this target is inaccessible, he will be in a state of anxiety. So, in order to obtain rest, man has to follow the Divine principles for a healthy life and development, otherwise he will experience a straight, narrow life due to his anxiety."(15)
I have presented some principles of development in my previous papers (6-10), and I introduce some more principles here:

The principle of considering supervision of God on man and His intervention in their everyday practice of life
According to this principle, all aspects of man are different tests for his evaluation. All accidents and involuntary stressful life events have a special meaning in Islam. So, man is responsible for enduring all events and to cope reasonably. He should consider that his situation of development will be arranged according to his approaches to the events. Thus, no accident should be considered as an occasional event. The Qur’an teaches:
“We try you with evil and good, for a testing.”
(Prophets: 35)F16
In our everyday practice of psychotherapy, we try to understand the meaning of the events and try to modify them. This principle helps us to fulfill our duty in a reasonable cultural setting which our clients are usually familiar with.
So, we can predict enough success. There are a lot of the Islamic instructions in this field, and some of them have been included in my previous papers.(6-10)
The principle of necessity to predict universal distress
According to the Qur’an":
“Certainly, we have created man in distress.”
(City: 4)F16
Islam considers the world as a place in which difficulties and calamities are natural components. We can use this principle to facilitate universality for individual and group psychotherapy. By this very realistic teaching, man should expect the difficulties and should be ready to solve and endure them. By assuming the difficulties to be world-wide, and not to be exclusive and allocated to our client, this principle will minimize the feeling of distress, and it will increase the rate of individual tolerance against stressful life events.
The principle of reward and punishment and the possibility of compensation
The Prophets (PBUH) give humans glad tidings for acceptable behavior and warn them against unacceptable trends. It is written in the Qur’an:
“We have sent thee to bear good tidings and warnings to mankind.”F17
Psychotherapists can add this principle to two previous principles in order to make more sense and to bear more tolerance. Many instructions exist in this aspect. Some of them can be used exactly for psychotherapy.(6-10)
The principle of the necessity to consider God’s blessings and positive aspects of life and thanks accordingly
There are many instructions in the Qur’an and other Islamic instructions to consider God’s blessing and to thank Him .The basic message of these instructions is:
“…Not to minimize positive aspects of life.” It is written in the Qur’an:
“If you count God’s blessings, you can never number them.”F18 (Abraham: 34 - The Bee: 18)

A 35-year-old lady came to me with a written complaint of all the negative aspects of her life. The following interview took place in my clinic:
Doctor: Have you no positive aspects in your life?
Patient: Not at all, Dr. If I had any positive aspects in my life, I would not have come to your clinic.

Doctor: (At this moment I thought how I could continue the session. Then her four-year-old daughter who accompanied her caught
my attention.) Is she your daughter?
Patient: Yes, Dr.

Doctor: If God offers to exchange this girl with all the wealth in this country, are you ready to do so?
Patient: (Silence)

Doctor: May I clarify my suggestion, so say that if you choose this bargain, you can have all the money from all banks, and you
can do anything you want.
Patient: No, Dr. This girl is my whole life. Nothing has so much meaning for me. She is the symbol of my whole family. I can’t
accept this suggestion.

Doctor: Instead of the country’s wealth, would accept it, if God were to offer you the world’s wealth for this exchange?
Patient: No, I cannot voluntarily accept. I told you this girl is synonymous with my breath. I can’t stop breathing.

Doctor: So, you see. You do have positive aspects in your life. I can see only one of them, and this one has satisfied you with
happiness which you cannot exchange for all the wealth in the world. I am sure that if I suggest to multiply the world’s
wealth more than one thousand times, you would still not exchange it for your daughter. Is that right?
Patient: Yes, Dr. I had never considered my daughter as a positive aspect before this session.

Doctor: Now, you should remember that God says: "If you count God’s blessings, you can never number them." I am sure you
have as many positive aspects in your life, that God confirms them. But you claimed that you did not have even one
positive aspect. Have you ever thanked God?
Patient: Yes. I usually thank God one hundred times after each of my prayers.

Doctor: I think English speaking people give thanks very well. They give thanks for tea, coffee, dinner, etc. So when you want to
thank God from now on, please remembers the positive aspects of your life and then thanks Him. I am sure that in this
case you can count at least five hundred positive aspects of your life every day.
I asked her to write down the positive aspects of her life for the next session. She felt quite happy, energetic and hopeful when she left my office. This session has been established on the cultural beliefs of the counselee, and it was arranged in a very natural way.
The principal of the necessity to consider psychic capacity and its facilitating factors as well as its limitations
The Islamic teachings present psychic capacity as usual vessels. It has been confirmed in the Islamic culture that the best person is the one who has more developed psychic capacity.
We have a special chapter in the Qur’an named “Expanding” which says:
Did we not expand thy breast for thee?
And lift from thee the burden,
The burden that weighed down thy back.
Did we not exalt thy fame?
So, developed psychic capacity will lift life’s burden and exalt one’s fame. It seems that developed psychic capacity is related to the rate of one’s healthiness, intelligence and the rate of his information and practical use of developmental principles (previously mentioned).(6-10)
How one can collect the Islamic perspectives on counseling and psychotherapy
A very important fact that workers should know in discovering the Islamic perspectives is that they can find the basic data in the Qur’an and instructions from the Islamic leaders. They (researchers), themselves, are responsible to develop the branches. Imam Sadegh (PBUH) says: “It is our duty to clarify the basics, and you have to pay attention to the branches.”F19
Although this instruction is fundamental for all the Islamic sciences, fortunately we can find not even basic aspects which were presented by the Islamic leaders in the field of psychology, mental health, counseling and psychotherapy, but these aspects can be found in some detail.
Practical use of the Islamic perspectives on counseling and psychotherapy
These principles can be used independently, in themselves, without consideration to other schools of thought.
All scientific and experienced psychotherapeutic methods can be used under the Islamic perspective authority. For example, we can use cognitive psychotherapy, hope psychotherapy, reality therapy, directive psychotherapy and any other methods of psychotherapy with the Islamic instructions. I mentioned one example for the use of cognitive psychotherapy with the Islamic perspective.
The Islamic perspective on counseling confirms the validity of some practical methods of psychotherapy. So, Muslim psychotherapists should pay more attention to the confirmed methods.
According to Wolberg, one of the goals of psychotherapy is to facilitate development for the clients. According to the Qur’an there is no other instrument except the Divine School of Psychology to reach this target.
So, the principles of development are exclusive and unique in this case. This instrument should be trained worldwide in order to access peace and rest in the world milieu.

References

  1. Ameli MH. Vasael, alshia. Vol. 8, pp. 424-430, 1401, H.Gh

  2. Amodi J. AM: Ghorarol-hekam. Tehran Univ. Pub., Vol. 7, pp. 183-184, 1366

  3. Arberry JA. The Qur’an interpreted. Center of the Islamic Studies, 350 p. Pub. Date not mentioned

  4. Broojerdi. Jammeh-ahadis. Sangui Pub. 1380 H.Gh

  5. Detre TP and Jarecki GH. Modern psychiatric treatment. Lippincott, 486 p. 1971

  6. Hosseini SA. Primary prevention of psychiatric disorders according to Islam. Bulletin of Islamic Medicine, Vol. 3, pp. 597-603, 1984

  7. Hosseini, SA. An elementary study of the principles of individual and group psychotherapy and mental health in Islam. Indian J of Psychiatry, pp. 335-337, 1983

  8. Hosseini SA. An Islamic model of personality and its implications for the understanding of anxiety state. The Proceedings of the 8th Congress of Pakistan Psychologists 1992

  9. Hosseini SA. Fundamentals of mental health. Mashhad University Press, pp. 212-253, 1992

  10. Hosseini SA. Fundamentals of mental health; An elementary study on fundamentals of preventive psychiatry, psychotherapy and programming of healthy life according to Islam. Astan-e Qods Pub., pp. 35-37, 58, 1995

  11. Hosseini SA. Fundamentals and methods of guidance and counseling. Roshd Pub., 208 p., 1367 H.Sh

  12. Majlesi. Beharol-Anvar, Vol. 104, 75 p

  13. Pyandeh A. Nahjul Fesaha, pp. 523-524, 136 H. Sh

  14. Pedersen PB., Draguns et al. counseling acros cultures. 4gh ed., Sage Pub., pp. Vii-xvii, 1996

  15. Tabatabai SMH. Al-mizan. Mohammadi Pub., pp. 34-35, 1335 H.Sh

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